123 Agreement Nuclear

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Washington D.C. on September 26, 2008 to celebrate the conclusion of the agreement with U.S. President George W. Bush. [136] He also went to France to express his gratitude for the country`s attitude. [137] Indian Foreign Minister Pranab Mukherjee expressed deep gratitude to India`s allies in the NSG, particularly the United States, Britain, France, Russia, Germany, South Africa, and Brazil, who helped India reach the NSG consensus on the nuclear deal. [138] Without them, we limit our own access to the international market and undermine our influence and ability to participate in the development of safe nuclear energy programs abroad. September 27, 2008: The House of Representatives approves the US-India nuclear deal. 298 members voted in favour of the bill, while 117 voted against.

The objective of these agreements is to prevent the diversion of commercial nuclear material and technology from their intended peaceful use. Since U.S. nuclear trade controls apply only to our trading partners, the failure to conclude an agreement 123 means the loss of U.S. influence over that country`s nuclear program. And because no other nuclear supplier complies with U.S. nuclear safety and non-proliferation standards, failure to reach a 123 agreement also means a de facto reduction in non-proliferation and safety standards. In places like Saudi Arabia, this must not happen. An Agreement 123 is an executive agreement of Congress that provides the general legal framework for the United States to engage in civil nuclear cooperation with a foreign country, including the export of nuclear reactors, critical reactor components, and reactor fuels. If the president has received all the necessary guarantees from the country cooperating with the conclusion of a 123 agreement, the agreement acts as an ex ante agreement between Congress and the executive branch, which means that the agreement will enter into force without necessary action by Congress. In particular, the Statute describes a requirement of 90 days of continuous session at the end of which the Agreement enters into force if no joint resolution disapproves of the Agreement.

The Trump administration submitted 123 new agreements with Mexico and the United Kingdom to Congress in May 2018. The United Kingdom had previously fallen under Agreement 123 between the United States and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), but after the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union, the bilateral US-EU agreement will enter into force. Japan`s agreement technically expired in 2018, but renewal conditions require the agreement to remain in force until it is terminated by a party. The Department of Energy and the U.S. nuclear industry support maintaining the case-by-case approach previously adopted in renewal agreements. A case-by-case approach allows countries to apply for ENR approval and has been successfully pursued by India and Japan. After India was granted the exemption on September 6, the UK said the NSG`s decision would make a «significant contribution» to global energy and climate security. [116] U.S.

National Security Council spokesman Gordon Johndroe said, «This is a historic achievement that reinforces global non-proliferation principles and helps India meet its energy needs in an environmentally responsible manner. The United States commends the governments participating in the NSG for their outstanding efforts and cooperation in welcoming India into the global non-proliferation community. .